Man who shot Braintree officer in the head was victim in infamous Marshfield racial attack

Officials have identified the man they found dead in a room at the Braintree Motel 6 as Tizaya Robinson, 25, of Boston.

In 2008, then a 17-year-old from Jamaica Plain, Robinson was stomped into unconsciousness outside a party in Marshfield, in an incident that brought national headlines.

Robinson, who was black, was surrounded and beaten, kicked and stabbed repeatedly with a stick by seven white Marshfield residents who attacked him while yelling racial epithets - and who kept yelling the slurs even as police arrived and began arresting them.

The attack left him with long-lasting nerve damage in a hand and foot.

Four pleased guilty; three went to trial and were found guilty of charges that included violating Robinson's civil rights and sentenced to between three months and three years behind bars in 2011. In 2015, the Supreme Judicial Court upheld their convictions on the civil-rights charges.

The Norfolk County District Attorney's office and Braintree Police report Robinson was staying at the Motel 6 and that officers approached his room with caution Friday night because he had warrants from Dorchester Municipal Court charging him with domestic assault and battery and attempted kidnapping. Authorities say Robinson opened fire from inside the room, hitting Donald Delaney in the head. A robot sent into the room later found Robinson dead, likely from a self-inflicted gunshot wound, authorities say.

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    Comments

    I'd be more interested in

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    I'd be more interested in reading about the officer's life, how he was a veteran and how he is recovering. About how he bravely put his life on the line for his country and then for the citizens of Braintree.

    I'm less interested in the criminal who nearly kill him. But then again this county hates police officers and that kind of stuff doesn't sell newspapers or get people to a news blog, does it?

    I'm curious ...

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    How is it you already know so much about the officer? Could it be that, maybe, you've already read one of the large and growing number of stories about him? His story IS being told, and deservedly so. There's nothing I can add to his story, the one the media has already told us and will continue to tell us.

    And yet, at the same time, you have no interest whatsoever in learning what led to this attack? You have no curiosity how somebody who was nearly beaten to death eight years ago in an attack that became notorious across the country wound up alone in a cheap motel room in Braintree and doing what he did?

    That's fine, I suspect you'll find plenty of media outlets that will continue to ignore his story (surely, I can't be the only person who Googled his somewhat unusual name and wondered about the odd coincidence that somebody with that name would be involved in both incidents). I could point you to some of these outlets, but, again, it looks like you've already found them.

    So you think that him being

    By on

    So you think that him being attacked in racially motivated assault led him to shoot a cop in the head?

    Well you cracked another case, way to go Detective!

    Nope

    By on

    But there's a line from A to B. Again, what led him to that motel room?

    Adam left out that he was armed with mace in Marshfield

    By on

    Apparently the "long lasting nerve damage" didn't affect his trigger finger, used to shoot a cop in the head. In the Marshfield case, physical violence and racial slurs are never appropriate but nobody disputes that this little cherub was armed with chemical spray that he sprayed until empty, on the entire crowd in the Marshfield incident. I don't know too many 17 year old boys/men that are carrying that weapon to a party. There was also testimony that he was calling girls at the party "ho's" and the white people "crackers." No surprise there was a confrontation and he expected one, if the entire story is told.

    Similarly, he was again armed, this time with a gun and again he used it, when the Braintree Police came to ask him about the kidnapping charge he was wanted for. Habits die hard. God bless Officer Delaney who was shot and prayers for his recovery.

    Oh Lookit This!

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    An apologist for Racist Thugs - and it is Fish!

    How surprising that is. Little darlings were askeered of the black boy! That's why the did it! Poor little racist thugs, they feels got hurtsed!

    I've never before seen

    By on

    I've never before seen someone push an agenda so hard. Nobody you have replied to is advancing the idea that the criminal involved in this shooting was a good person, that the incident years ago was

    Much like the troubling link between contact sports, CTE, and the violence it often leads to, some of us are just curious what led this man here. Nobody is calling him a hero. Nobody is diminishing the cop.

    Please, leave this martyr complex at the door. You are the only person here pushing a cops vs others narrative.

    From what I read

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    The details varied. Was he walking down the street or at a party? Dog spray or pepper spray? Suffice to say the stories all end with the details Adam described.

    Thanks for being fair, Adam

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    Your fairness toward marginalized groups, even after that marginalization leads to horrible acts, is much appreciated and one of many reasons why I love reading this blog when I'm not even from/in Boston!

    Marginalization Leads To Horrible Acts?

    Really? Is that a universal (no pun) statement? I didn't exactly have a perfect upbringing, can I shoot a cop a blame it on that?

    How would you like me to handle things with my friends from those marginalized groups when I ask them what horrible thing have they done today that is justified because of their marginalization? Should I encourage some random acts of Anti-Social Behavior from them because you think its justified?

    Severe head injuries resulting from marginalization

    By on

    Those DO.

    But, hey, I'm sure you know the kids who kicked this guy down and they are great kids when they aren't doing horrible things and why ruin their lives blah blah blah blah racist blah.

    Blah blah blah blah?

    Excellent retort.

    Gore Vidal's ghost called to let me know that you are doing a great job, but wondered with that answer if you have also received a blow to the head at some point.

    Easy there tiger

    I'm sorry, was anybody on this thread trying to excuse or legitimize this guy's behavior? Were there some deleted posts I missed?

    Oh, I get it

    By on

    Your little friends in Marshfield weren't marginalized, therefore what they did isn't horrific.

    /racistlogic

    Hey Meffa Resident

    If you are going to accuse me of being a racist at least have the stones to log in with your regular handle and call me out. Your response pattern is fairly obvious.

    By the way just because I coached an 11 years old boy one summer 5 years ago and said hi to his parents a few times and then his older sister spray paints racist graffiti does not make me a racist. Nor does living in the town where you were harassed make me a racist either.

    That's a logic fail that will make you swirl your eyes a bit.

    actually, sociology will tell you

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    that yes, it does.
    In all cases? No, but it's a very strong influence.

    Is it really so hard to believe?

    And btw for you and your straw man, no one here ever, ever, ever said that's an "excuse" or encouraged anyone to "engage in anti-social behavior" just for kicks.
    You said that.

    Some people here seem to be having a really difficult time understanding that there are those of us that recognize that at one point in time, this person was an innocent child (as we all were), and somewhere along the line a number of things happened to put him where he ended up (which is also true of all of us), things that surely were both in his control as well as not. And what is in your control is limited to the menu of choices you have available to you at any given moment. Absolutely some people make bad choices, big and small. I realize you choose to believe that "marginalization" is either not real or not a strong influencer of behavior, but it does drastically reduce your menu of options when faced with choices to make.

    In the end, we don't have the entire store of his life, but we do have a few pieces, and doesn't it make you the least bit curious as to how people end up where they are? Not even a little?

    The guy is dead

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    and the officer is supposed to make a full recovery. What more exactly do you want done? Do we have to discount the guy's actual humanity in every account of the story? Should we dig him up and rough him up a little with a baseball bat, just to be sure?

    Meanwhile, traumatic brain injury is a really big deal, causing ripples everywhere from pro football to law enforcement. The guy's state of mind is in fact germane to the story, since it's the difference between "career criminal shoots cop for no reason, then kills self" vs "brain-damaged 23-year-old impulsively shoots cop and then takes own life."

    Where does it say that he

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    Where does it say that he suffered a brain injury? I have only read about nerve damage.

    Yeah, police officers get no

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    Yeah, police officers get no attention. Did you know that there has never been a single TV show, movie, book or anything about cops! The liberal media and hollywood elite act like they don't exist!!1!

    Seriously?

    But then again this county hates police officers

    That's absurd. Because we as a nation generally have highly professional law enforcement that is not very corrupt, we tend to like our police more than most countries do; we see them as our friends, families, and neighbors who happen to work in law enforcement rather than as some kind of occupying army.

    We are, of course, also aware that there are systemic problems with law enforcement culture: the increasing militarization of our police, and, as evidenced by your quote, a remarkably thin-skinned mindset among some LE that regards any attempt to hold our police to a very high standard of professionalism as "cop-hating".

    Very sad

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    Given the viciousness of the attack when he was 17, it's very likely that Robinson suffered traumatic brain injury. Who knows how he might have turned out had he not been so cruelly attacked.

    My thoughts are with Robinson's family, the policeman he shot and his family.

    Come on.

    By on

    We're already making excuses for this guy?

    Empathy

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    Not the same as making excuses. Go look it up.

    Assigning blame

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    To an unknown medical condition is not empathy, maybe you need to "look it up chief."

    Hey

    Who exactly is saying anything negative about the cop?

    Discussing the shooter isn't ignoring the officer or their injuries.

    It changes the narrative

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    Friday it was- cop shot by guy in motel who later kills himself.

    One could read this article to say- black guy who got the shit kicked out of him 8 years ago by racist thugs dead after encounter with cops serving a warrant on him.

    Was it right that this guy had to endure the beating that he did? Hell no. That said, if it were a friend or family member of yours that was at the business end of that gun Friday night, would you be pondering the life of the guy who pulled the trigger?

    Here's the thing about empathy. It shouldn't be used to excuse actions. Mark Wahlberg had a bad upbringing by all accounts, but there are many around here that don't want to hear it when the idea of him getting a pardon for the horrible actions of his youth.

    I believe in forgiveness. I believe in compassion. That one of this guys last acts was to try to kill someone makes it hard. If he made his peace with God before killing himself, good for him. But in the end he shot someone.

    Yes

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    His record in recent years was not a good one - the police were there to serve a warrant on him, on top of the charges he already faced in Dorchester. And, yes, he shot somebody.

    But unless you believe in predestination, one can still be sad about a life lost like that. And you can feel sad at the same time for the pain the officer obviously went/is going through.

    It's called reporting

    Yes, it changes the narrative. Instead of a fantasy world of perfect cops and pure evil criminals it shows how people are complex and their rational for committing horrible crimes isn't crystal clear.

    Many people would prefer to live in a world in which victims never become criminals and criminals are never victims. That world doesn't exist, sadly.

    Okay, great

    By on

    So with your comment, you've finally switched it up. The cop that served the warrant was evil and the criminal was an upstanding citizen until the incident mentioned occurred.

    Yes, criminals can be victims, and they should be afforded all assistance crime victims should get, but when victims become criminals, they are criminals. No one is shedding a tear about how Mark Wahlberg beat up some poor Vietnamese guy because, well, his childhood was tough, but perhaps we should. They are both victims, right?

    Here's a suggestion

    By on

    What sort of special things were done so that the little Marshfield darlings who stomped this guy don't have permanently ruined lives.

    I suggest you research that before you go all "but IRISH SLAVERY" all over this forum, and think it is okay because you used nice words.

    Here's my counter

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    I don't think any special things should have been done to make the Marshfield thugs feel better. Some pled guilty. Others let a jury decide that for them and got the same result. But let's say that they were all the products of divorce. Or that their parents were all abusive alcoholics. Whatever, they still beat the shit out of the guy, so fuck 'em. That's how most people approach these things.

    No stupid Irish slavery. Were that true (and I am not saying that is is) it was centuries ago. Back in the 18th century my family was tossed out of Ulster. We got over that.

    Huh

    The shooter was the victim in 2007 and the assailant (criminal) in 2017.

    No one is accusing the cop of doing anything wrong.

    Mind blowing, eh?

    Okay

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    You wrote-

    Yes, it changes the narrative. Instead of a fantasy world of perfect cops and pure evil criminals it shows how people are complex and their rational for committing horrible crimes isn't crystal clear.

    Sure, some might be looking at this guy as pure evil. Not me, but definitely the idea is "guy who shoots at cop = bad." You threw the cop and criminal on the scales and claimed (seemingly) that they were more equal than we were first lead to believe. The guy was just living his life, suffering from his trauma 8 years back when the cop came knocking, disturbing him. As 'fish notes above, perhaps there was a bit more to the 2008 story. As far as that goes, a bunch of guys beating a guy almost to death diminishing that "bit more" to the point it doesn't matter. Same thing with shooting a cop (or anyone innocent.)

    No

    The guy was just living his life, suffering from his trauma 8 years back when the cop came knocking, disturbing him.

    No one -- Not Adam, not me, not any of the comments so far -- is suggesting the shooter was innocent when the cop came to his door. Obviously the cop had a reason to think he was up to no good and obviously he was fully wrong to shoot anyone.

    For most people, that's the end of the story. Bad guy shoots cop. Period.

    The case becomes more interesting when you learn the shooter was the victim of a notable crime himself and did not recover from that crime to become a decent member of society himself. That's the crux of this incident.

    and not just empathy

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    It's important to realize that evil acts can have far reaching consequences. The beating this man received in his teens is very likely to have caused brain damage, not to mention PTSD.

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause long-lasting cognitive damage and personality change. When you read about the changes seen in some boxers or football players over the years, those are the results of TBI.

    Trying to understand is not the same as excusing. Especially if understanding leads to prevention, both by reducing hate violence and by improving the care received by victims of such attacks.

    That's not empathy.

    By on

    It's excuse making. Most of us know the difference. Why don't we wait for the investigation to be complete before we explain away the domestic abuser's attempted murder of a police officer?

    Where's the excuse making?

    "Explain" does not mean "explain away."

    Why is it that every attempt to embrace the actual complexity of the world gets dismissed as "excuse making" or "explaining away."

    The objective here is to stop police officers from getting shot in the head; to stop people who might otherwise have led productive lives from turning into violent losers. It's not to wrap up every incident into a simple morality play. That requires sustained examination.

    Look at it this way: I can curse out the rats who gnaw their way into the basement. I can set out traps, and be happy I nail one. Or, alternatively, I can take a look around, study the situation, and realize that it's because I've been storing dog food in an open container where they can smell it from outside. Then I can seal up the dog food and solve the problem. If I told you this and you accused me of "taking the side of the rats," or of trying to "explain away" the rat's behavior, you'd be nuts.

    even if

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    you lack capacity to empathize with other humans, from a purely sociological and criminal behavior perspective, understanding why these kinds of things happen is part of preventing them and explaining them when they can't be prevented.

    I know it's easier to be angry and hate the other, and damn if that sense of law and order superiority isnt intoxicating, but events don't happen in a contextless vacuum.

    Some people are not

    By on

    Some people are not interested in facts or the whole story. They would prefer that they were swept under the rug than be documented and shown to the public because it forces them to use their brains to think a little bit. Its like when conservatives throw a tantrum when people show them that sea levels are rising.

    The "whole story"? There was no whole story here.

    By on

    Adam offered up some historical background, not a whole story. It was certainly interesting, but it also lacked any details of what instigated the described horrible event of a decade ago. Nor was there anything about what happened in the life of the deceased before that event, or since.

    Unfortunately for the serenity of this forum (ha!), Adam presented it in a way that seemed to be implying a post hoc ergo propter hoc relationship to many readers (both agree-ers and disagree-ers).

    Adam does a great job with the extremely limited resources he has at his disposal. But it's ridiculous to assume that in a few paragraphs he'd be able to tell the 'whole story' of a person's life.

    Fellow Reporter Here

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    Adam's not making an excuse. He's telling the other side of the story. That's different.

    He asked, who is this guy, who fired through a door at a cop and left him with a bullet in his face?

    Our job is to ask questions.

    PERSONALLY:

    I don't think Braintree police had much of a choice here. They did not fire first.

    Wow.

    By on

    Are you really doing this?! Are you really trying to humanize a guy who shot a cop?! He doesn't deserve to be humanized because he was an animal. Maybe he got stomped on in Marshfield because he acted like an animal on that night too? I think you do a good job at informing your readers but you've gone off the deep end in the past year so I've frankly been returning here less. Sigh...

    re·port

    By on

    re·port
    rəˈpôrt/
    verb
    gerund or present participle: reporting
    1.
    give a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated.
    "the representative reported a decline in milk and meat production"

    Now, what the fuck is wrong with you people?

    Here is the problem. Some of

    By on

    Here is the problem. Some of his "reports" are taken from random people's twitter feeds and lend no basis of truth. Also, reporting is supposed to be unbiased and in many instances Adam partake in biased reporting.

    Nobody is stopping you

    By on

    Start your own "objective" news blog anytime you like, according to your own rules.

    Simple solution

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    Delete Universal Hub from your bookmarks and walk away. I don't care. If you think I'm irresponsible or wrong a lot, I'm just not going to change your mind.

    Yes, I rely heavily on Twitter. Not in this case, though. Twitter only got involved in my coverage when I posted a link to the story there.

    As for being unbiased, when it comes to politics, yeah, I'll admit I'm not. Other stuff, I try. I can see you shaking your head there, but that gets me back to my first paragraph.

    so what?

    By on

    The major reason I come here is because Adam collates these sources and makes connections to past news that many people forget about. If you are worried about fact-checking or biases, you can always consult other sources in addition, or just on their own.

    Agreed. This is a more of

    By on

    Agreed. This is a more of blog, not an unbiased news site. I've seen my own work cited here. But I read it every day. I like it. It's good and entertaining and responsible. Part of the problem with the modern news consumer (I hate that term, but I'm not sure what else works) is people assume anything with information is journalism; it's not.

    HOWEVER

    In this case, Adam's done some research and told us who the subject is.

    I should have done that.

    The Globe is just getting to that today, 5/9/2017.

    Dear Adam let's be friends IRL and annoy the T. I'll meet you at the Allston railyard at midnight.

    no, im pretty sure

    By on

    He was a human.

    You calling him "an animal" says alot about you, though

    What are you really afraid of?

    By on

    Adam found an interesting piece of this story and reported it. Reporting on the shooter's background in no way diminishes the officer. He is in no way attempting to excuse or justify the shooter's actions. He's telling readers, "Hey, this guy was the same person who was beaten by a group of racists when he was 17." I'd like to know who this guy was and how he got to this point where he was holed up in a cheap, crappy motel room avoiding arrest on a domestic violence warrant. AND I'd like to know about the officer too, so I've been reading those stories as well. You don't like it, don't read it.

    Possible answer

    Those who label perpetrators of awful deeds as animals may be afraid to admit that they, too possess what used to be called "baser instincts." That phrase was an acknowledgement that all humans are capable of unspeakable acts. Knowing that the wrong combination of circumstance, desperation, stress, and disease or injury could lead me to do something terrible is frightening, but I have to accept that as a part of the human condition. Every human being is subject to those influences, though they are different for everyone, and some are more resistant than others.

    Complaining about "excuses" is attempting to divide the world into us humans, who would never do those bad things, and those animals, who will do them. There is no such division. Hitler could not have committed his atrocities without the willing assistance of many ordinary people who generally tried to be good humans. Recognizing our own vulnerability to extreme forces, and the same vulnerability of everyone else, is empathy, not making excuses.

    Yeesh

    By on

    Go over to one of the threads about the two doctors who were killed. They're full of people trying to figure out why the accused murderer did what he did. Why is it OK to wonder what led up to that and not to wonder about what happened in this case?

    Animal?

    By on

    And what words do you use to describe the racist thugs who tried to turn him into a vegetable?

    Oh, you seem to have forgotten that their actions had consequences.

    I'm with Adam.....what lead

    By on

    I'm with Adam.....what lead this kid to be in this motel room, with a loaded gun, ready to shoot at cops? No one is taking anything away from the officer who was shot. He is every bit of an American Hero. But what did cause this kid to go from having his life saved by cops, to ready to kill cops? Maybe if we took time to figure that out, we can figure out what could have been done to stop it.....I'm sure there are one or more people who are complicit with what lead this 25 year old down this path. If we can't learn from the past, then we can't change the future. Maybe some of you are ok with more cops getting shot, but I for one am not.

    Humanity seeks new ways to screw up

    These problems never go away, because humanity keeps creating new people who try to find money, happiness/pleasure, men & women try to get together, conflict is inevitable especially between equals who want the same thing and they find ways to screw it up.

    We all hope there is some scientific or economist ix way of solving these problems but there really isn't.

    There isn't?

    By on

    Citations needed.

    One great way to get rid of it: eliminate segregation and poverty

    Nice theory

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    Must be more true than the conclusions drawn from studying decades of data for decades.

    Classic Drumpfian "logic": my farts are more truthiful than science and reality! Because I say so!

    I just want to be clear

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    are you really advocating for class and race-based segregation on the grounds that it eliminates conflict?

    I mean, it's staggeringly incorrect, but, just for clarity's sake.

    Inequality breeds conflict, stress, and the violence that goes along with it.
    people in unequal societies are actually physically sicker and more prone to die early than those in equal societies. There's plenty of science to back this up.

    Know what they used to say similar things about?

    By on

    Fires.

    Then they applied science to them AND made laws to enforce what they learned through science and there are vastly fewer fires and deaths now.

    So, where's the fire here? Scientists have been noting for decades that inequity and poverty create damaged people of the sort who commit crimes. Get rid of the inequity and poverty - like the Scandinavian countries have been doing - and you greatly reduce crime.

    So, yes, there is a scientific solution - people like you blathering on about fate, morality, can't be solved, etc. are making sure that there is never the political will to implement that scientific solution.

    Citations Needed

    By on

    Where is your proof that nothing works to combat poverty and crime?

    Put up or shut up.

    I wonder..

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    how much attention you would have given to this story had that racist assault not had happened, and the police officer had died.

    You do realize that it's ultra liberal bullshit like this that got that monstrosity of a human being elected President, right? Humanizing would-be murders and basically declaring war on the police pissed a lot of people off last November.

    And continuing with this BULLSHIT is probably going to get that red faced troll elected for a second term.

    But the racist assault did

    By on

    But the racist assault did happen and the cop didn't die. Stick with us in this reality.

    Mentioning a prior news story is "ultra liberal bullshit" now. What a country.

    What are you even talking about?

    By on

    I will admit that I did not cover the story as it unfolded Friday into Saturday, not because it wasn't big news but because I had to make a decision: What to cover? A lot of things were happening Friday: The double murder in South Boston, the single murder in Uphams Corner, even the murder in Mattapan, which I'd heard enough details about to know that something had happened on Rexford Street, but not enough to know what (since I was concentrating at the time on the South Boston murders). The sad fact is, as just one person, there's only so much I can cover and monitor, and decided to focus on the South Boston and Dorchester cases because my primary focus is Boston, and if I have to choose what to write about, I'll go for Boston over the suburbs (props to Cheryl Fiandaca at WBZ, who started in Braintree and for awhile Friday night seemed to be covering both that incident and the South Boston one).

    Once I saw the guy's name and wondered where I'd seen it before and Googled it, it became a Boston story, because the guy was from Boston (and, yes, I had to spend some time confirming it was the same guy - his name may be unusual, but you never know). By then, of course, every other media outlet in town had already reported on the initial incident and told us about the officer who'd been shot, so as I said earlier, there didn't seem much reason to just repeat the story everybody already knew.

    As for Trump, screw it. I was going to write more, but let's try to stay focused on the specific case here.

    Adam I cannot believe how

    By on

    Adam I cannot believe how patient you are with us. These explanations of your perspective in deciding what to write when is *enormously* illuminating, thank you.

    Seriously Now?

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    Every ending has a beginning and a reason for happening. White America needs to realize and take responsibility for their transgressions against a whole race of people. You need to realize that when you marginalize a WHOLE group of people, when you tell a WHOLE group of people that they aren't as human as you are, when you chain and beat grown men, when you rape their wives in front of them, when you take FAMILIES and split them up, when you hang, burn, tourcher, spit on, piss on, fire hose (seriously do i need to go on?) a WHOLE group of people, do you seriously think that the trauma from such events aren't transferred from generation to generation? When you were holding people back (and continue to do so today) economically, financially, hell in anyway you see fit... this is the end result you didn't see coming... violence, disperse, mistrust. Called Human Psychology.
    Maybe this kid (and I see him as a kid because I knew him since he was a kid... yeeeaah any who) got a raw deal on top of the raw deal we as Black people begin with. Maybe a 17 year old kid's life WAS irreparably altered when a gang of racist thug-suburbanites decided to stomp the kid into unconsciousness. Let's see... the brain controls everything including your thoughts and actions so maybe stomping someone's control center may just... I don't know make people prone to do things like shoot a cop... and maybe kill yourself... Just saying... I'm not AS(s) intelligent as some of you opinionated ass wipes sooooo yeeeeaah. Ty rest in peace you will be truly missed.... Officer Doe full recovery and God speed.

    I dunno

    By on

    Read Cullen's column that Adam linked to. You might have been friends with this guy, but even before the beating, he was not the most sympathetic of characters to the rest of the world. Doesn't excuse the beating. Not by a long shot. But the end result could have been the same even without that trauma.

    A lot of fake moralizing

    This story is important because we need learn everything we can to predict dangerous behavior and protect the public. Many violent criminals have been victimized by violent crime. Head injuries can have a long term effect on future behavior. I don't feel sorry people that commit horrible crimes but I would be willing to do anything that would have prevented this officer being shot.

    one un-described juvenile robbery = not the most sympathetic character? Then look around the room you are standing in, because many people make mistakes as juveniles and don't go on to lead a life of violent crime.